1. Selected papers
  2. Basic human values
  3. Euthanasia attitudes
  4. Measurement invariance
  5. In Russian

Selected papers

  • Revisiting Cowgill’s Modernisation Theory: Perceived Social Status of Older Adults Across 58 Countries

    Rudnev, M., & Vauclair, C. M. (2022). Ageing & Society. | doi | 


    Cowgill’s modernization theory stipulates that older people’s social status is lower in societies with higher societal modernization. The few existing studies reveal conflicting results showing either negative or positive associations. The current study follows up seminal cross-national research on the perceived social status of people in their seventies (PSS70) in a diverse set of countries. PSS70 was defined as the relative status of people in their seventies compared to people in their forties. Data were obtained by the World Values Survey (2010–2014) and included 78,904 respondents from 58 countries. Multilevel regressions showed that the level of modernisation had a strong and negative association with the PSS70 but mostly due to one component, namely the share of older people in society. The associations were more complex when considering cultural zones of which two stood out. Irrespective of level of modernization, Muslim countries showed higher and post-communist countries showed lower levels of PSS70. In Muslim countries, modernization had a near-zero association with PSS70, whereas it was strongly negatively associated with PSS70 in post-communist countries. This study generally supports Cowgill’s theory in a large and diverse cross-sectional sample of countries, yet it also illustrates its cultural boundary conditions.

  • In Search of a Comparable Measure of Generalized Individual Religiosity in the World Values Survey.

    Remizova A., Rudnev M., Davidov E. (2022) Sociological Methods and Research. | doi |


    Individual religiosity measures are used by researchers to describe and compare individuals and societies. However, the cross-cultural comparability of the measures has often been questioned but rarely empirically tested. In the current study, we examined the cross-national measurement invariance properties of generalized individual religiosity in the sixth wave of the World Values Survey. For the analysis, we used multiple group confirmatory factor analysis and alignment. Our results demonstrated that a theoretically driven measurement model was not invariant across all countries. We suggested four unidimensional measurement models and four overlapping groups of countries in which these measurement models demonstrated approximate invariance. The indicators that covered praying practices, importance of religion, and confidence in its institutions were more cross-nationally invariant than other indicators.

  •  Political Participation and Basic Values in Europe: Replication and Extension of Vecchione et al. (2015). 

     Rudnev M. (2021) British Journal of Psychology, 112(4). | doi | Early version


    Vecchione et al. (Br J Psychol, 106, 2015, 84) demonstrated the effects of four higher-order values on political participation across 20 European countries. In their Study 1, they found that political participation was related to three higher-order basic values and that these associations were stronger in more democratic countries. The present study attempted a replication using a more rigorous modelling approach. Multilevel structural equation models with latent variables for both participation and basic values replicated the main effects of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values but demonstrated negative effects of Openness values (vs. positive in the original study) and positive effects of Self-Enhancement values (vs. ambiguous or insignificant in the original study), while cross-level interactions indicated weaker effects of values in more democratic countries (vs. the opposite in the original study). These discrepancies appeared mostly due to the original study’s implicit assumption that basic values’ measurement errors were zero. The new results indicated a counter-intuitive similarity of effects of supposedly opposite values. Self-Transcendence–Self-Enhancement is suggested to be a politically motivating value dimension, whereas Openness to Change–Conservation is a dimension that discourages political participation regardless of the preferred extreme.

  •  Relations Among Higher Order Values Around the World.

    Rudnev M., Magun V., & Schwartz S.  (2018). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(8).
    doi | | ESS Topline results (pp. 28-29)


    The circular structure of basic human values is the core element of the Schwartz value theory. The structure demonstrated high robustness across cultures. However, the specific correlations between values and the differences in these correlations across countries have received little attention. The current research investigated the within-country correlations between the four higher order values. We estimated the correlations with meta-analytical mixed-effects models based on 10 surveys, on different value instruments, and on data from 104 countries. Analyses revealed theoretically expected negative relations between openness to change and conservation values and between self-transcendence and self-enhancement values. More interestingly, openness to change and self-transcendence values related negatively with each other, as did conservation and self-enhancement. Openness to change and self-enhancement values related predominantly positively, as did conservation and self-transcendence values. Correlations between the adjacent values were weaker in more economically developed countries, revealing higher value complexity of these societies. These findings were consistent across multiple surveys and after controlling for levels of education and income inequality. We concluded that, across most countries, values tend to be organized predominantly in line with the Social versus Person Focus opposition, whereas the Growth versus Self-Protection opposition is pronounced only in more economically developed countries.

  • Caveats of Non-Ipsatization of Basic Values: A review of issues and a simulation study

    Rudnev M. (2021) Journal of Research in Personality, 93, 104118. | doi | Early version.


    Ipsatization, or a correction of variables by their common component, is routinely applied to measures of basic values. Although ipsatization has been criticized, the consequences of non-ipsatization are rarely discussed. We show that the ipsatization of values is intertwined with their definition. A common factor involved in ipsatization was suggested to represent a nuisance variable, a response style, social desirability, or other constructs. A simulation study illustrated that within-individual centering revealed more accurate value scores when the common factor was in the data, with exception of the situation when values were consistently and positively correlated with each other. We conclude that in different conditions both applying and failing to apply ipsatization can cause bias. Therefore, no general advice in regard to ipsatization can be provided.

  •  Testing Measurement Invariance for a Second-Order Factor: A Cross-National Test of the Alienation Scale. 

    Rudnev M., Lytkina E., Davidov E., Schmidt P.,  & Zick A. (2018) mda: methods, data, analysis. doi |


    Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis has become the most common technique for assessing measurement invariance. However, higher-order factor modeling is less frequently discussed in this context. In particular, the literature provides only very general guidelines for testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models, which is a prerequisite for conducting meaningful comparative research using higher-order factors. The current paper attempts to fill this gap. First, we explicate the constraints required for identification of the invariance levels in a multiple group second-order factor model. Second, in addition to the conventional interpretation of the results of this assessment, we suggest an alternative view on the invariance properties of a second-order factor as evidence of structural rather than measurement invariance. Third, we present an empirical application of the test which builds on Seeman’s alienation scale and utilizes data from eight countries collected in 2008-2009. We found empirical support for metric invariance of both the firstand second-order factors, but no support for scalar invariance of the first- and second-order factors. However, we find pairs of countries where scalar invariance for both the first- and second-order factors is supported by the data. We finalize with a discussion of the results and their interpretation.

  •  Within- and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: A Typological Approach.

    Magun V., Rudnev M., & Schmidt P. (2016) European Sociological Review, 22(2). | doi |

    | Supplementary Material


    The within-country and between-country heterogeneity of populations has been largely studied apart from each other. This article analyses simultaneously these two parts of value heterogeneity of populations using a typological approach. Using data from the European Social Survey, populations of 29 European countries are classified based on their values that were measured with Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire. Latent class analysis resulted in five European value classes. All the countries studied are internally diverse in their value class composition, and most of them have a non-zero probability to have members of all the five value classes. Nordic and Western European countries surpass Mediterranean and Post-Communist Europe in the probability of a class that combines the strongest preferences for Openness over Conservation and for Self-Transcendence over Self-Enhancement. It is concluded that a typological approach provides a new look at within- and between-country value differences, making empirical comparisons holistic and more parsimonious.

Basic human values

Rudnev M. (2021) Political Participation and Basic Values in Europe: Replication and Extension of Vecchione et al. (2015). British Journal of Psychology, 112(4).
Early version

Rudnev M., Magun V., Schwartz S.  (2018). Relations Among Higher Order Values Around the World. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(8).
Full text
  See summary in the ESS Topline results booklet (page 28-29)

Rudnev, M., & Vauclair, C. M. (2018). The Link Between Personal Values and Frequency of Drinking Depends on Cultural Values: A Cross-Level Interaction Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1379.
Open Access
  See summary in the ESS Topline results booklet (page 23)
See poster

Rudnev M., Magun V., & Schmidt P. (2016) Basic Human Values: Stability of Value Typology in Europe.  In Voicu, M., Mochmann, I.C. & Dülmer H. (eds.) Values, economic crisis and democracy. Abingdon: Routledge.
Full text  | Supplementary data: Class membership (SPSS data file) 

Magun V., Rudnev M., & Schmidt P. (2016) Within- and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: A Typological Approach. European Sociological Review, 22(2). First published online: August 24, 2015.
Open Access | Supplementary Material

Magun V., & Rudnev M. (2015) Basic Human Values of the Russians: Both Different from and Similar to Other Europeans. In L. Harrison, E. G. Yasin (eds) Culture Matters in Russia and Everywhere: Backdrop for the Russia-Ukraine Conflict. Lexington Books.
 Early version

Rudnev M. (2014) Value Adaptation among Intra-European Migrants: Role of Country of Birth and Country of Residence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(10): 1626 -1642.
Early version

Dobewall H., & Rudnev M. (2014) Common and Unique Features of Schwartz’s and Inglehart’s Value Theories at the Country and Individual Levels. Cross-Cultural Research, 48(1):45-77. 
Full text

Magun V., & Rudnev M. (2012) Basic Values of Russians and Other Europeans. Problems of Economic Transition, 54, (10): 31-64.
 Full text

Euthanasia attitudes

Tormos, R., Rudnev, M., & Bartolomé Peral, E. (2023) Patterns of Change in the Justifiability of Euthanasia Across OECD Countries. Frontiers in Political Science, 5, 67.
Open Access

Remizova, A., Rudnev, M. (2020) Understanding the justifiability scale in international surveys: an exploratory study. International Journal of Social Research Methodology23(3): 291-309 
Early version

Rudnev, M., & Savelkaeva, А. (2018) Public Support for the Right to Euthanasia: Impact of Traditional Religiosity and Autonomy Values Across 37 NationsInternational Journal of Comparative Sociology, 59(4):301-318.

Siegers P., Rudnev M., Beckers T., Henseler A.-K. (2016) A Multi-Trait Multi-Scenario Measurement for Attitudes toward Assisted Dying: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Russia and Germany. Unpublished manuscript.

Measurement invariance

Leitgöb, H., Seddig, D., Asparouhov, T., Behr, D., Davidov, E., De Roover, K., Jak, S., Meitinger, K., Menold, N., Muthén, B., Rudnev, M., Schmidt P., & van De Schoot, R. (2022). Measurement invariance in the social sciences: Historical development, methodological challenges, state of the art, and future perspectives. Social Science Research, 102805. 
Full text

Kirkland, K., Crimston, C. R., Jetten, J., Rudnev, M., [41 coauthors] Bastian, B. (2022). Moral Expansiveness Around the World: The Role of Societal Factors Across 36 Countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science. Online first.
Full text

Remizova A., Rudnev M., & Davidov E. (2023) Religious involvement across Europe: Examining its measurement comparability. Survey Research Methods. Access

Remizova A., Rudnev M., Davidov E. (2022) In Search of a Comparable Measure of Generalized Individual Religiosity in the World Values Survey. Sociological Methods and Research. Online first.
Full text

Jovanovič V., Rudnev M., Iqbal N., Żemojtel-Piotrowska M., & Rice S. (2022)  Cross-Cultural Measurement of Positive and Negative Emotions in Adolescence: Evidence from Three Countries.Journal of Happiness Studies. Access

Jovanović, V., Rudnev, M., & [31 coauthors] (2022). The Satisfaction with Life Scale in Adolescent Samples: Measurement Invariance across 24 Countries and Regions, Age, and Gender. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1-23. 
Open Access

Rudnev M., Vauclair C.-M., [28 coauthors], & Bastian B. (2020). Measurement invariance of the moral vitalism scale across 28 cultural groups. Plos One, 15(6), 1-11.
Open Access

Rudnev M., Lytkina E., Davidov E., Schmidt P.,  & Zick A. (2018) Testing Measurement Invariance for a Second-Order Factor: A Cross-National Test of the Alienation Scale. mda: methods, data, analysis.
Open Access

Rudnev M. (2018) Testing for invariance of latent classes: Group-as-covariate approach In Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., Billiet, J., & Meuleman, B. (Eds.), Cross-cultural analysis: methods and applications, second edition Routledge.
Full text

Papers in Russian

Журналы и книги

  • Руднев М. Г. Социальный статус людей старшего возраста в сравнительной перспективе: особенности посткоммунистических стран. // Социологический журнал. 2021. Том 27. № 4. С. 8-31.
  • Магун В. С., Руднев М. Г. За пределами «человека советского»: россияне в европейской ценностной типологии // В кн.: Демонтаж коммунизма. Тридцать лет спустя / Под общ. ред.: К. Рогов. М. : Новое литературное обозрение, 2021. С. 325-353. Текст
  • Руднев М.Г. Нормативные взгляды россиян на эвтаназию и смежные практики: поиск детерминант. 2019. Том 25. No 1. С. 72–97. DOI: 10.19181/socjour.2018.25.1.6280. Текст
  • Магун В. С. Руднев М. Г., Шмидт П. (2015) Европейская ценностная типология и базовые ценности россиян. Вестник общественного мнения. Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии, 121(3-4): 74-93. Текст
  • Руднев М. Г., Савелькаева А. С. Передача базовых ценностей внутри семьи: концептуализация и пилотное исследование // В кн.: XV апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества: в 4-х книгах / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 3. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. С. 397-404. Текст
  • Руднев М. Г. Инвариантность измерения базовых ценностей по методике Шварца среди русскоязычного населения четырех стран // Социология: 4М. 2013. № 37. С. 7-38.  Текст
  • Магун В. С., Руднев М. Г. Ценностная гетерогенность населения европейских стран: типология по показателям Р.Инглхарта // Вестник общественного мнения. Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2012. № 3-4. С. 12-24. Текст
  • Руднев М. Г. Причины и следствия изменения массовых ценностей. Рецензия на книгу: Инглхарт Р., Вельцель К. 2011. Модернизация, культурные изменения и демократия. М.: Новое издательство. 464 с. // Экономическая социология. 2011. Т. 12. № 2. С. 138-143.  Текст
  • Руднев М. Г.Магун В. С. Ценностный консенсус и факторы ценностной дифференциации населения России и других европейских стран // Вестник общественного мнения. Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2011. № 4. С. 81-96.  Текст
  • Магун В. С.Руднев М. Г. Базовые ценности россиян и других европейцев (по материалам опросов 2008 года) // Вопросы экономики. 2010. № 12. С. 107-130.   Текст
  • Магун В. С., Руднев М. Г. Международные сравнения базовых ценностей российского населения и динамика процессов социализации // Образовательная политика. 2010. № 9-10(47-48). С. 65-72.  Текст
  • Руднев М. Г.Влияние «русскоязычности» на жизненные ценности // Социология: методология, методы, математическое моделирование. 2009. № 28. С. 107-128. Текст
  • Магун В. С., Руднев М. Г. Жизненные ценности российского населения: сходства и отличия в сравнении с другими европейскими странами // Вестник общественного мнения. Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2008. Т. 93. № 1. С. 33-58. Текст
  • Руднев М. Г. Методология и основные результаты исследований престижа профессий в зарубежной социологии // Вопросы образования. 2008. № 2. С. 217-239. Текст
  • Руднев М. Г., Магун В. С. Жизненные ценности населения: сравнение Украины с другими европейскими странами // В кн.: Украинское общество в европейском пространстве / Отв. ред.: Е. Головаха, С. Макеев. К. : Институт социологии НАНУ, 2007. Гл. 8. С. 226-273. Текст


  • Руднев М.Г. БАЗОВЫЕ ЦЕННОСТИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ: СРАВНЕНИЕ РОССИЯН С ЖИТЕЛЯМИ ДРУГИХ ЕВРОПЕЙСКИХ СТРАН. Диссертация на соискание степени кандидата социологических наук. Под рук. В.С. Магуна. Институт социологии РАН. Москва, 2009 Автореферат
    Полный текст
    Full text – English translation